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CSES Module 1 Data Set Errata
Posted: October 24, 2010

Switzerland (1999) - Macro Variables A5031, A5032_1, A5032_3, A5034_1, A5034_3, A5035_1, and A5042

Since the last full release of the CSES Module 1 data, Swiss collaborators have found corrections to seven macro variables (listed above).

Recommended changes to the data file are as follows:

--------    --------------                  ---------
A5031       03. Yes; Limited enforcement    05. No
A5035_1     07.                             00.
A5032_1     02.                             91. Other [See variable notes]
A5032_3     01.                             91. Other [See variable notes]
A5042       05. No                          01. Yes

The following code, written for SPSS, will correct the problems:

If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5031 = 5.
If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5032_1 = 91.
If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5032_3 = 91.
If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5035_1 = 0.
If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5042 = 1.

The following election studies notes should replace existing election study notes, as appropriate:

         | Voting is compulsory in only a single district (Schaffhausen,
         | A2027=14), i.e., applies to about 1% of the Swiss population,
         | where those abstaining without a justifiable reason are subject
         | to a small fine.

         | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (1999): A5032_1
         | All Switzerland cases for this variable have been coded "91"
         | for the following reason:
         | Voters can cast as many votes as there are seats in their
         | districts (1 to 34; see A4001).

         | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (1999): A5032_3
         | All Switzerland cases for this variable have been coded "91"
         | for the following reason:
         | Voters can cast one or two votes, depending on whether their
         | district is a canton or a so-called half-canton. Cantons are
         | represented by two councilors each in the upper house, and
         | voters have two votes, accordingly. Half cantons elect a single
         | representative, and voters can therefore cast only one vote.
         | Half-cantons are Obwalden (A2027=6), Nidwalden (7), Basle-Town
         | (12), Basle-Country (13), Appenzell Outer-Rhodes (15) and
         | Appenzell Inner-Rhodes (16).

         | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (2003): A5034_1
         | "Proportional representation election system in all cantons
         | with more than 1 seat according the Hagenbach-Bischoff System.
         | Single-member-districts (OW, NW, UR, GL, AI, and AR from 2003)
         | have a Majority voting system (simple Majority required).
         | Hagenbach-Bischoff System: Proportional Representation system
         | based on the highest Average concept. Involves the combination
         | of a quota and a divisor system. Two stage process where
         | candidates receiving a quota are elected first and any remaining
         | seats are determined by a divisor system (d'Hondt).
         | Note that PR formally applies to all the districts in lower
         | house (National Council) elections, but PR elections congeal to
         | de facto plurality in single member districts.

         | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (2003): A5034_3
         | The seats are assigned in majority run-off elections, with two
         | exceptions. Canton Jura uses d'Hondt PR formula, while Upper
         | House elections in Appenzell Inner-Rhodes (AI) are held at the
         | Landsgemeinde, an annual assembly of all citizens.  The
         | electoral formula may most properly be described as plurality
         | (citizens simply raise their hands for one candidate, vote
         | shares are roughly estimated rather than counted, no qualified
         | majority is needed). "There are different ways to calculate the
         | absolute majority. In the cantons LU, UR, SZ, FR, AR, SG, AG,
         | TG, VD, VS, NE, JU - on the base of all valid votes,
         | often minus blank votes:
         | (Total valid votes shared by 2) + 1 = the absolute majority.
         | Candidates have to get more than 50% of all votes to be elected
         | in the first run. In the second run (usually a few weeks later)
         | the simple majority is enough. In ZH, BE, GL. ZG, SO, BL, SH:
         | based of the votes for candidates: total votes for candidates
         | divided by the amount seats to provide, and then divided by
         | 2 = Majority. In those cases the majority is usually under 50%.
         | In Graub√ľnden (GR): the total of the votes for candidates is
         | divided by the amount of seats to provide + 1. The result + 1 is
         | the absolute majority. In GE a simple Majority of 33.33% is
         | enough to be elected."

         | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (1999): A5035_1
         | There are no legal thresholds at the national level.

         | In the Upper House elections, in some cases parties refrain from
         | running candidate(s) already on first ballots. In other cases
         | parties withdraw their candidacies in run-offs. Strategic
         | coordination between parties is not limited to Upper House
         | elections alone. Especially in Lower House single-member
         | districts (SMDs) it is quite common that parties fraternally
         | divide upper and lower house seat(s) among them before the
         | election, so that elections are either 'mock' elections (i.e. no
         | prosperous rival candidates), or, in case of perfect
         | coordination, 'tacit' elections (i.e. no rival candidates at
         | all, and thus, no election is held). The latter happened at the
         | 1999 lower house elections and at the 2003 upper house elections
         | in Obwalden. The former occurred, for example,  at the 1999
         | lower house elections in Uri, Glarus, Nidwalden, and Appenzell
         | Inner-Rhodes, and at the 2003 lower house elections in the
         | mentioned districts plus Obwalden.